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Janeiro 2016 - Descobertas Fascinantes Sobre o Cérebro

8 Fascinating Things We Learned About The Mind In 2015

Adapted from: The Huffington Post

Carolyn Gregoire Senior Health & Science Writer,

1. Smartphones are wildly distracting. 

Americans are spending more time than ever looking at screens, and we're only beginning to learn how this is affecting our brains.  

Just hearing your smartphone vibrate is enough of a distraction to significantly impair focus and productivity, according to a Florida State University study  published in August.

Another recent study found that heavy smartphone users are more prone to experiencing "cognitive failures" arising from forgetfulness, inattention and a lack of awareness of one's surroundings, including things like missing appointments, walking into people and forgetting things. 

2. Psychedelics may be the next big thing in mental health care. 

We witnessed a renaissance in psychedelic research this year. A review of studies on the therapeutic applications of psychedelic drugs, published in September in the Canadian Medical Association Journal,  showed that psychotherapy assisted by substances such as LSD, psilocybin (hallucinogenic mushrooms) and MDMA (the active ingredient in Ecstasy) holds promise for treating mental health issues including post-traumatic stress disorder, addiction, end-of-life anxiety and depression.

3. Pollution is worse for the brain than we realized. 

Just months before the world looked on in horror at Beijing’s airpocalypse,  research found that exposure to air pollution can speed up brain aging, and may contribute significantly to neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

The study showed that small increases in exposure to pollution were associated with decreases of white matter in the brain -- in other words, exposure to environmental toxins was "shrinking" the brain. 

4. The brain and immune system are actually linked.  

This year, University of Virginia neuroscientists uncovered a previously unknown direct connection between the brain and the immune system -- a network of lymphatic vessels that previously had only been found to exist below the base of the skull, but were observed for the first time in the brain. 

The finding could have significant implications for the treatment of brain disorders involving inflammation, such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis and autism.

5. Erasing memories could be the future of addiction treatment. 

Scientists hacking into the brain to erase or transplant memories is no longer just the stuff of science fiction. Memory erasure may soon be a reality, and it could help us better treat drug addiction by targeting drug-related memories. 

 Landmark research from the Scripps Research Institute that was published in the journal Molecular Psychiatry identified a new drug that has the potential to selectively erase dangerous addiction-associated memories  in people addicted to meth. 

6. Nature does the mind good. 

We already knew that spending time in the great outdoors comes with significant physical and mental health benefits, but this year, researchers found that the psychological benefits of nature extend even further than we realized. 

Research from Stanford University that was published in July  found that outdoor strolls reduced the sort of obsessive, negative thoughts that characterize depression.

Another study published last month found that spending time in nature could also have therapeutic applications for addiction, and linked exposure to nature with reduced impulsivity and improved self-control.

7. To boost your mood, boost your bacteria. 

The brain-gut connection has been another major theme in neuroscience and psychology research over the past couple of years. This year, research found that increasing the balance of healthy bacteria in the gut can help to reduce anxiety and also to lessen symptoms of depression. 

One study showed that people who have more fermented foods in their diet -- which are filled with healthy bacteria known as probiotics -- exhibit less neuroticism and social anxiety. 

8. Good sleep is critical to a healthy emotional life. 

It's well-established that good sleep is crucial to psychological well-being -- and that sleep deprivation, on the other hand, raises stress levels and has been linked with anxiety, depression and other mental health problems. 

A landmark study published in July in the Journal of Neuroscience  found that good sleep is also a key component of emotional intelligence. The researchers showed that losing sleep dulls our ability to read facial expressions, which is an important component of emotional intelligence. On the bright side, dreaming actually boosts this ability, the researchers found.

Janeiro 2016 - Precisa descrever um gráfico em inglês?

Observe as dicas abaixo:

Verbs and nouns that indicate an UP movement:

Transitive verbs (this means you can use a complement after the verb, e.g. increase the price): increase, raise, put/push/step up,

extend, expand

Intransitive verbs (this means you can NOT use a complement after the verb, e.g. the price has risen): increase, rise, go/be up, grow,

extend, expand, boom                 

Nouns: increase, rise, growth, extension, expansion, boom (dramatic rise)

 

Verbs and nouns that indicate a DOWN movement:

Transitive verbs: decrease, drop, put/push down, cut, reduce

Intransitive verbs: decrease, fall, drop, go/be down, decline, collapse, slump

Nouns: decrease, fall, drop, decline, cut, reduction, collapse (dramatic fall), slump (dramatic fall)

 

Verbs and nouns that indicate stability:

Transitive verbs: keep / hold ... stable/constant, maintain... (at the same level)

Intransitive verbs: remain stable, stay constant

Nouns: stability

 

Some examples:

-Our turnover rose last year, but our profits dropped.

-The banks have raised their interest rates twice this year and this has pushed up the cost of borrowing.

-There has been a slight increase in the value of the dollar, but the pound is down again.

-We have reduced our prices by 10 per cent.

We can describe a trend by looking at:

-    the difference between two levels

-    the end point

 

1. Describing the difference

This year turnover has increased by 5 per cent. (The difference between this year and last year is 5 per cent)

This year there has been an increase in turnover of 5 per cent.

Notice the prepositions. We use to increase by (with the verb) and an increase of (with the noun).

 2. Describing the end point:

    This year turnover has risen to £3m. (The end result is that turnover is up to £3m.)

    This year there has been a rise in turnover to £3m.

    Notice the prepositions. We use to rise to (with the verb) and a rise to (with the noun).

 

Notes

1.Rise and raise

Note the following use of the nouns, meaning ‘ increase in pay’:

We review wages in October and introduce the annual rise in January. (BrE)

We review wages in October and introduce the annual raise in January. (AmE)

 

 2.Do not use up after increase, raise and rise; do not use down after fall, drop and decrease:

The banks have raised their interest rates. (not: raised up)

Our GNP has been falling for the last three quarters. (not: has been falling down)

Dezembro 2015 New Year's Resolutions

What's your New Year resolutions for 2016 and what will you do to accomplish your goal?

 

My New Year Resolutions is not to take too big a bite out of life to chew.
By focusing on a New Year resolution that is realistic you have a better chance for success.  Success reduces stress. Choose to set yourself up for success rather than failure in the New Year. 

Break your resolutions down into workable parts. 
According to statistics and research like Web MD, one of the most frequently implemented New Year's Resolution deals with food.  Diet and weight are an important part of our physical and mental health. When our favorite jeans fit, we are happy. We vow to eat less sugar, less fat, and less salt. We promise ourselves we'll eat more veggies, whole grains, and fish and cut down on burgers and second helpings. Resolving to make that skinny dream a reality is great.

Vows are a great first step. Now how do you put those vows into a resolution that is successful?
Start by taking small bites, no pun intended.
Rather than saying you are going to lose a large amount of weight by this time next year, break your resolve down into workable parts. Choose a realistic amount of weight loss, or gain, that you will chart weekly. Now you are working with yourself rather than against yourself by implementing a realistic and achievable goal that embraces evaluation and accountability.

Evaluation and accountability are very important in the success of a New Year Resolution. 
Often the most difficult parts of a Resolution is stating it in a way that is precise, measurable and can focus on success. This is called a behavioral objective which is a defined description of an expected experience. 

Make your New Year Resolution behave. 
Behavioral objectives that are people oriented place the emphasis upon what the person is expected to do within a designated time period with testable measurements for evaluation, and accountability for optimum success. 

The key to solving the accountability and evaluation issues is to develop a clear, concise objective. 

This Behavioral Objective Pattern is for any changes you want in your life. 
 
Although it is taken from the one above that focuses on weight, health and wellness, tweak it to meet your needs, time period, and objectives.

Fill in the blanks so it becomes your successful Behavioral Objective New Year Resolution. 
As seen today (date)_________by this time next year, (date)___________, I (your name)_________ will have (state your desired behavior)  _________________.  This behavior will be measured (how often) _____________by (device)____________, and will display (desired results)_____________ which will create (amount)_________ per (time period)__________. This will be charted by ______________ and success will be seen as (state new behavior)___________________________________. 

Set up your chart for accountability and evaluation. 
Now you are working with yourself for success. Use your dreams as a GPS to keep you on the right road. 
If you miss a self-evaluation measurement see if you are reminded of it in a dream. Your dream may be validation that your inner-guidance is now part of your success team. 
Turn your stress into a game. See how often you hit your mark on your daily or weekly objective. 

Reward yourself with a pat on the back when you fill in your chart. 
Now, you have bragging rights. Share your New Year Resolution Behavioral Objectives with your friends. Perhaps they would like to join you in this healthy game. 

It is human to be stressed. Suffering through it alone is a choice. 
 Be kind to yourself. Make resolutions you can keep.  And, enjoy your New Year.
 
Quora By: Kathleen (Kat) O'Keefe-Kanavos

Dezembro 2015 Food Words

Curiosities about some Food Words - 

Some food has different names in British and American English.

Americans say zucchini from Italian. The British say courgette from French. Americans use the old name eggplant. In British English, aubergine from French has replaced it. Italian and French words are often used on menus. Small peas are often called petits pois from French, and British call snow peas by the French name mangetout (= eat everything).

In America, they talk about bacon ( a strip with lines of fat in it) and Canadian bacon ( with no lines of fat). In the UK, they talk about streaky bacon ( with lines of fat in it) and back bacon       ( with no lines of fat). The Americans say shrimp. The British have the same word, but say prawn more frequently.

Outubro 2015 - Word Families

Essa é uma maneira de maximizar o aprendizado de vocabulário, ao invés de aprender as palavras individualmente, você pode adquirir o hábito de introduzir novas palavras, que são da mesma família, mas que apenas acrescentando prefixos ou sufixos,  elas mudam de classe gramatical.

À medida que você entende como funciona, você transfere a metodologia para outras palavras, desta maneira potencializando seu aprendizado.

 

verb

 

agree

 

If both parties agree to the terms, we can finalize the contract.

 

 

noun

 

agreement

 

As soon as the labor agreement was signed, the factory resumed production of new cars and vans.

 

adjective

 

 

agreeable

 

The parties are agreeable to the terms.

  

 

verb

 

 

assure

 

I assure you that our drug-testing policy is applied fairly.

 

 

noun

 

assurance

 

 

What assurance is there the company will still be in business?

 

 

adverb

 

assuredly

 

 

He spoke assuredly, but his follow-up memo showed less conviction.

 

 

 

verb

 

 

cancel

 

The man canceled his magazine subscription and got his money back.

 

 

noun

 

 

cancellation

 

Writers usually receive a cancellation fee even if their articles are not published.

 

 

adjective

 

 

canceled

 

The canceled concert ended up costing our agency millions.

 

 

 

verb

 

 

obligate

 

The terms of the contracts obligate us to work for at least one more month.

 

 

noun

 

 

 

obligation

 

The factory managers have a legal and moral obligation to provide a safe work site.

 

adjective

 

 

obligatory

 

He finished his obligatory military service, and then joined his father on the orange farm.

 

 

 

verb

 

 

provide

 

Since the machine is very reliable, why don’t we cancel the service contract they provided?

 

 

noun

 

 

provider

 

We must negotiate a new contract with our Internet service provider.

 

 

noun

 

 

provision

 

The provision for canceling the contract is in the last clause.

  

 

verb

 

 

specify

 

The contract specifies the percentage of raise the workers will see next year.

 

 

noun

 

 

specification

 

The work was done according to our specifications.

 

adjective

 

 

specific

 

We have not chosen a specific location for the reunion.

 

Exercises: Choose the word that best completes the sentence.

 

  1. 1.The two sides were no closer to a final _____ at midnight than they were at noon.
    1. (A) agreement     (B) agree            (C) agreeable                                  (D) agreed

 

  1. 2.Our union representative _____ members that our rights would be defended.
    1. (A) assured         (B) assuredly       (C) assurance                                 (D) assure

 

  1. 3.If you _____ your reservation 48 hours in advance, you will not be billed.
    1. (A) will cancel      (B) cancellation    (C) cancel                                     (D) canceled

 

  1. 4.I don’t feel any _____ to give my boss more than two weeks notice when I leave.
    1. (A) oblige            (B) obliged           (C) obligatory                                (D) obligation

 

  1. 5.The _____ for terminating the contract were not discussed.
    1. (A) provide          (B) provider          (C) provisions                                 (D) provisioning

 

  1. 6.The contract calls for the union to _____ who their bargaining representative will be.
    1. (A) specific         (B) specifying         (C) Specification                            (D) specify

 

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